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  • Writer's pictureNotes From The Frontier

Ishi, The “Last Wild Indian”

Updated: May 4, 2023

In 1911, the last Native American known to be living “in the wild” and the last member of the Yahi tribe, surrendered to white civilization and mesmerized the nation, a living “relic” of a bygone era.

For tens of thousands of years, his people had lived in the beautiful country that would someday become northern California, among the mountains, meadows rich in bulbs, nuts and berries, forests glutted with big game and grizzlies, rushing rivers choked with salmon. The Yahi were a prosperous people, but as whites flooded into their ancestral land, they were decimated first by disease and then by guns. The 19th-century California genocide nearly wiped out the Yahi, and their parent tribe the Yani. Settlers set bounties of 50¢ a scalp and $5 per head for dead Yahi.

In 1865, when Ishi was five years old, his village was attacked in the Three Knolls Massacre, and 40 tribe members were killed. Only 33 survived, but cattlemen then murdered half of the survivors. The small group of last remaining Yahi, including Ishi and his family, hid in the mountains for the next 44 years.

In 1908, surveyors happened upon a camp with two older men and two old women. They were Ishi, his sister, mother and uncle. They fled but Ishi’s mother was very old and ailing and died. The surveyors ransacked the camp.

Ishi lived in the wilderness three more years, but after his uncle and sister died and forest fires decimated much of the area, Ishi began to starve because of loss of vegetation and game. On August 29, 1911, Ishi—nearly starving—decided to walk down from the mountain wilderness into a white settlement that had a slaughterhouse. Wearing a loin cloth and carrying his bow and quiver, he quickly caused a commotion and the sheriff arrested Ishi and put him in handcuffs. Ishi, it was said, smiled and complied with the sheriff’s demands. The local townspeople in nearby Oroville flocked to see the “wild man” from the wilderness. Soon curiosity seekers were coming from far-flung areas and the sheriff displayed the Yani Indian like a freak show speciman.

News of the sheriff’s “exhibit” reached university anthropology professors at University of California at Berkeley. Professor Alfred L. Kroeber removed the Yani Indian from the jail and brought him to the university to live and, not surprisingly, to be studied and exhibited.

When Kroeber asked his name, the Indian replied: "I have none, because there were no people to name me." According to Yahi custom, others had to introduce him to strangers. So Kroeber named him “Ishi,” which meant “man” in the Yani mother tongue.

Kroeber soon discovered that Ishi was amazingly intelligent and dignified. Kroeber wrote that he assimilated into the new white culture and the “ordeal of civilization” with preternatural grace. Ishi lived University of California's Museum of Anthropology, where he worked with linguists who were studying his language. On the weekends, he gave demonstrations to San Francisco crowds of his lifeways and survival skills, making bows and arrows, sparking a friction fire, building huts for shelter.

Kroeber marveled at Ishi’s confidence and independence. He held the rapt attention of the public that came to see him and his demonstrations were educational rather than carnival performances. Ishi told Kroeber that he liked instructing whites, whom he considered “sophisticated children—smart but not wise.”

Ishi’s intelligence and ebullient personality were so engaging that other anthropologists, scholars and filmmakers were anxious to meet him. In Februrary 1915, during the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, Ishi was filmed by Hearst-Selig News. (The film has since been preserved.)

In June 1915, Ishi was invited to live in Berkeley with anthropologist Thomas Talbot Waterman and his family. And in the summer of 1915, Ishi was interviewed and recorded by linguist Edward Sapir. (Those wax cylinders have since been recovered and restored.)

Professor of medicine Saxton Pope of UCSF also became close friends with Ishi, often hunted with Ishi and learned how to make bows and arrows in the Yahi way. Dr. Pope was also Ishi’s personal physician and realized too late that Ishi did not have the immunity’s to white diseases. Ishi contracted tuberculosis and died in 1916, only five years after he had come in from the wilderness. Saxton Pope was at his bedside when he died. He reported that Ishi’s last words were: “You stay. I go.”

Ishi had requested that his Yahi funerary tradition be respected and that his body remain intact for the afterlife. Some of his friends tried to protect his wishes, but the medical school performed an autopsy before friends could prevent it. Ishi’s brain was removed and sent to the Smithsonian. (It was not repatriated to until August 2000, when it was sent to the descendants of the Redding Rancheria and Pit River tribes to be re-united with the rest of Ishi’s remains and buried in a secret place.

So ended the final encounter between an ancient Paleolithic culture thousands of years old and the white industrial juggernaut in North America. Typical to the end, whites could not be trusted to keep their word. Ishi’s dignity, nevertheless, remained intact, even if his remains did not....

You may find this related post interesting:

• The Tragic Mystery of Geronimo’s Skull

“Ishi, The Last Wild Indian” was first published on May 15, 2021 on Facebook and .

©2021 Notes from the Frontier

3,256 views5 comments


Brian Martin Werner Ferris
Brian Martin Werner Ferris
Oct 20, 2022

So many within the nation say things, I yet to see any turning over property and go


Mary Snodsmith
Mary Snodsmith
May 15, 2021

Sad. Very sad.

Aug 28, 2022
Replying to

Bless his little heart


May 15, 2021

Sad posting - A lot of trash came west and to this day many still have their hand out and looking to take from others!

Notes From The Frontier
Notes From The Frontier
May 15, 2021
Replying to

It is shocking that whites always felt the need to keep the skull or brain of a Native after death. It has happened with so many great Native leaders. Why did they feel such a strong need to dominate and desecrate? Sickening.


Deborah Hufford

Author, Notes from the Frontier

Deborah Hufford is an award-winning author and magazine editor with a passion for history. Her popular blog with 100,000+ readers has led to an upcoming novel! Growing up as an Iowa farmgirl, rodeo queen and voracious reader, her love of land, lore and literature fired her writing muse. With a Bachelor's in English and Master's in Journalism from the University of Iowa, she taught students of Iowa's Writer's Workshop, then at Northwestern University, Marquette and Mount Mary. Her extensive publishing career began at Better Homes & Gardens, includes credits in New York Times Magazine, New York Times, Connoisseur, many other titles, and serving as publisher of The Writer's Handbook


Deeply devoted to social justice, especially for veterans, women, and Native Americans, she has served on boards and donated her fundraising skills to Chief Joseph Foundation, Missing & Murdered Indigenous Women (MMIW), Homeless Veterans Initiative, Humane Society, and other nonprofits.  


Deborah's soon-to-be released historical novel, BLOOD TO RUBIES weaves indigenous and pioneer history, strong women and clashing worlds into a sweeping saga praised by NYT bestselling authors as "crushing," "rhapsodic," "gritty," and "sensuous." Purchase BLOOD TO RUBIES online beginning June 9. Connect with Deborah on, Facebook, and Instagram.

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